What are the applications of enzymes in the research and treatment of disease?
With the development of biotechnology in the modern information age, the research, development and use of enzymes have become more and more extensive, and as a result, the application of enzymes in medicine has become more further extended.
- The relationship between enzymes and certain diseases
Diseases caused by the lack of enzymes in the human body are mostly congenital or hereditary. For example, albinism is caused by the lack of tyrosine hydroxylase, and patients with bean disease or primaquinoline sensitivity are caused by the lack of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Many toxic diseases are almost always caused by the inhibition of certain enzymes. For example, when commonly used organophosphate pesticides (such as trichlorfon, dichlorvos, 1059, and dimethoate, etc.) are poisoned, it is because they combine with an OH on the essential serine group of the active center cholinesterase to render the enzyme inactive. .
Cholinesterase can catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylcholine to choline and acetic acid. When cholinesterase is inhibited and inactivated, the hydrolysis of acetylcholine is inhibited, resulting in the accumulation of acetylcholine. A series of poisoning symptoms appear, such as muscle tremors, miosis, sweating, slow heartbeat, etc. -SH of cysteine) to render the enzyme inactive.
- Application of enzymes in disease diagnosis
Enzyme activity in healthy people is relatively stable. When certain organs and tissues in the human body are damaged or diseased, certain enzymes are released into the blood, urine or body fluids. As acute pancreatitis, serum and urine amylase activity have been greatly increased. Hepatitis and other causes of liver damage, hepatocyte necrosis or increased permeability, a large amount of transaminase is released into the blood, and serum transaminase is elevated, etc. Therefore, in medicine, the onset and development of certain diseases can be understood or determined by measuring the activity of enzymes in urine, blood or body fluids.
- Application of enzymes in clinical treatment
With the development of science, enzyme therapy has been gradually recognized by people and widely appreciated. The clinical application of various enzyme preparations is increasingly common, such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, etc., which can catalyze the breakdown of proteins. This principle has been used in surgical expansion, purification of purulent wounds and treatment of serous adhesions in the chest and abdominal cavity. In the treatment of myocardial infarction, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary infarction and disseminated intravascular coagulation, streptokinaseplasmin, urokinase, etc. can be used to dissolve blood clots and prevent thrombus formation.
Enzymes play a big role in medicine. Some coenzymes, such as coenzyme A and coenzyme Q, can be used for the adjuvant treatment of important organs such as the brain, heart, liver and kidneys. Moreover, the principle of competitive inhibition of enzymes is also used to synthesize certain chemical drugs for bacteriostatic, bactericidal and anti-tumor treatment. For example, sulfonamides and many antibiotics can inhibit enzymes necessary for the growth of certain bacteria, so they have bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects. Many antitumor drugs can inhibit enzymes related to nucleic acid or protein synthesis in cells, thereby inhibiting tumor cell differentiation and proliferation to control tumor growth. Thiouracil can inhibit iodase, thus affecting thyroxine synthesis, so it can be used to treat hyperthyroidism.